Publications (CCSVI, MRA/MRV, SWI, 2006 – now)

Research about venous Multiple Sclerosis hypothesis / CCSVI. The publications are chronologically ordered, the latest at the top.

The publication list will not be updated on a regular basis anymore and may not be up-to-date.

Good sources of CCSVI research news:

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Publications (CCSVI, MRA/MRV, SWI, 2006 – now) updated

  1. [giampiero11a] Giampiero A: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul;70(1):181; author reply 181-2. Epub 2011 Jun 14. Type: Comment. PMID 21674590, doi:10.1002/ana.22451. new
  2. [radak11b] Radak D, Tanaskovic S, Marinkovic S, Antonic Z, and Kolar J: Internal jugular vein duplication: a further truncular malformation in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Phlebology. 2011 Oct:. PMID 22037279, doi:10.1258/phleb.2011.011027. new
    Vascular Surgery Clinic, Dedinje Cardiovascular Institute, Heroja Milana Tepića 1 Street, Belgrade, Serbia.
  3. [bavera11a] Bavera P. M., Mendozzi L., Cavarretta R., Agus G. B.: Venous extracranial Duplex ultrasound and possible correlations between multiple sclerosis and CCSVI: an observational study after 560 exams. Acta Phlebologica 2011 August;12(2):109-13. Article. new collapse collapsed title=Abstract]The article concerns an observational study subsequent to 560 Duplex ultrasound (DU) exams on multiple sclerosis affected patients. The aim of the study was to find out, after the so-called “Zamboni Theory”, if there may be any correlations between chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). All the patients had a certain diagnosis for MS and all exams were carried out, with a group of control in non-MS patients, by the same operator using two similar but different brand Duplex devices following the same procedure. The aim was to find any possible malformation in the extracranial venous cerebral outflow, mainly concerning the internal jugular vein and vertebral plexus system. Outflow malformations due to significantly reduced vein diameter and/or valve flaps were seeked both in horizontal and upright position. The results were interesting considering the constant presence of venous outflow problems in a significant number of patients affected by SM disease. The diagnosis percentage happened to be very similar, and significant, using either DU devices.
  4. [tucker11a] Tucker TW: A physics link between venous stenosis and multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Dec;77(6):1074-8. Epub 2011 Sep 29. PMID 21958625, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.09.006. new
    Tactical Technologies Inc., 356 Woodroffe Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2A3V6.
  5. [radak11a] Radak D, Kolar J, Tanaskovic S, Sagic D, Antonic Z, Mitrasinovic A, Babic S, Nenezic D, and Ilijevski N: Morphological and haemodynamic abnormalities in the jugular veins of patients with multiple sclerosis. Phlebology. 2011 Sep:. PMID 21903685, doi:10.1258/phleb.2011.011004. new
    Vascular Surgery Clinic, Dedinje Cardiovascular Institute, School of Medicine, Belgrade University, Heroja Milana Tepića 1 Street, Belgrade, Serbia.
  6. [habib11a] Habib CA, Liu M, Bawany N, Garbern J, Krumbein I, Mentzel HJ, Reichenbach J, Magnano C, Zivadinov R, and Haacke EM: Assessing Abnormal Iron Content in the Deep Gray Matter of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis versus Healthy Controls. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Nov:. PMID 22116106, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2773. new
    Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Radiology, and Neurology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan; Medical Physics Group and Section of Pediatric Radiology,, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Center for Radiology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany; Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Jacobs Neurological Institute, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York; and The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, Michigan.
  7. [fjeldstad11a] Anette S. Fjeldstad, John McDaniel, Melissa A. H. Witman, Steve J. Ives, Jia Zhao, John W. Rose, James Hannon, D. Walter Wray and Russell S. Richardson: Vascular function and multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Volume 258, Number 11. doi:10.1007/s00415-011-6065-2. new
  8. [ludyga11a] Tomasz Ludyga, Marek Kazibudzki, Paweł Latacz, Marcin Świerad, Jacek Piegza, Marcin Hartel, Ewa Kluczewska, Marian Simka : Early results of a prospective open-label study on endovascular treatments for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in the patients with associated multiple sclerosis. Phlebological Review 2011; 19(1):9-14 . Abstract. new
  9. [zamboni11a] Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Weinstock-Guttman B, Kennedy C, Salvi F, and Zivadinov R: Venous Angioplasty in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a Pilot Study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Aug:. PMID 21839654, doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.03.035. new
    Vascular Diseases Centre, University of Ferrara, C.so Giovecca 203, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  10. [beard11a] Beard J: Comments regarding 'Venous Angioplasty is Safe to Perform and May Have Benefits Forin Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Results of a Pilotcase Control Pilot Study' Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 May:. PMID 21555227, doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.03.031. new
    Sheffield Vascular Institute, Herries Road, Sheffield S5 7AU, UK.
  11. [zivadinov11e] Zivadinov R, Ramanathan M, Dolic K, Marr K, Karmon Y, Siddiqui AH, Benedict RH, and Weinstock-Guttman B: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic, pathogenetic, clinical and treatment perspectives. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Sep;11(9):1277-94. PMID 21864074, doi:10.1586/ern.11.117. new
    Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.
  12. [dolic11a] Dolic K, Weinstock-Guttman B, Marr K, Valnarov V, Carl E, Hagemeier J, Brooks C, Kilanowski C, Hojnacki D, Ramanathan M, and Zivadinov R: Risk Factors for Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) in a Large Cohort of Volunteers. PLoS One. 2011 ;6(11):e28062. PMID 22140507, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028062. Open access article. new
    Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
  13. [mandato11a] Mandato KD, Hegener PF, Siskin GP, Haskal ZJ, Englander MJ, Garla S, Mitchell N, Reutzel L, and Doti C: Safety of Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: A Report of 240 Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Nov:. PMID 22088659, doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2011.09.019. new
    Department of Radiology (K.D.M., P.F.H., G.P.S., M.J.E., S.G., N.M., L.R., C.D.), Albany Medical Center, MC-113, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208; University of Maryland (Z.JH.), Baltimore, Maryland.
  14. [niggemann11a] Niggemann P, Seifert M, Förg A, Schild HH, Urbach H, and Krings T: Positional Venous MR Angiography: An Operator-Independent Tool to Evaluate Cerebral Venous Outflow Hemodynamics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Nov:. PMID 22051812, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2774. new
    Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Privatpraxis für Upright MRT, Aschheim, Germany; and Department of Neuroradiology,Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  15. [doepp11a] Doepp F, Würfel JT, Pfueller CF, Valdueza JM, Petersen D, Paul F, and Schreiber SJ: Venous drainage in multiple sclerosis: A combined MRI and ultrasound study. Neurology. 2011 Nov;77(19):1745-51. Epub 2011 Oct 26. PMID 22031530, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318236f0ea. new
    Department of Neurology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13344 Berlin.
  16. [bastianello11a] Bastianello S, Romani A, Viselner G, Tibaldi EC, Giugni E, Altieri M, Cecconi P, Mendozzi L, Farina M, Mariani D, Galassi A, Quattrini C, Mancini M, Bresciamorra V, Lagace A, McDonald S, Bono G, and Bergamaschi R: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: clinical correlates from a multicentre study. BMC Neurol. 2011 ;11:132. Epub 2011 Oct 26. PMID 22029656, doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-132. Open access article. new
    Department of Public Health and Neurosciences, IRCCS "C, Mondino National Institute of Neurology" Foundation, University of Pavia, Italy.
  17. [thapar11a] Thapar A, Lane T, Nicholas R, Friede T, Ellis M, Assenheim J, Franklin IJ, and Davies AH: Systematic review of sonographic chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency findings in multiple sclerosis. Phlebology. 2011 ;26(8):319-25. Epub 2011 Oct 23. PMID 22021635, doi:10.1258/phleb.2011.011098. new
    Charing Cross Hospital, London W6 8RF, UK.
  18. [zivadinov11d] Zivadinov R, Poloni GU, Marr K, Schirda CV, Magnano CR, Carl E, Bergsland N, Hojnacki D, Kennedy C, Beggs CB, Dwyer MG, and Weinstock-Guttman B: Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. BMC Neurol. 2011 ;11:128. Epub 2011 Oct 19. PMID 22011402, doi:10.1186/1471-2377-11-128. Open access article. new
    Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
  19. [werner11a] Werner JD, Siskin GP, Mandato K, Englander M, and Herr A: Review of venous anatomy for venographic interpretation in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Dec;22(12):1681-90. Epub 2011 Oct 5. PMID 21975259, doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2011.08.018. new
    Department of Radiology, MC-113, Albany Medical Center, 47 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208.
  20. [reekers11a] Reekers JA: CCSVI and MS: A Never-Ending Story. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Sep:. PMID 21962589, doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.09.019. new
    AMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, NL 1105 AZ Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands.
  21. [mayer11a] Mayer CA, and Ziemann U: CCSVI: Is Blinding the Key? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Sep:. PMID 21944996, doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.09.014. new
    Department of Neurology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
  22. [flynn11a] Flynn LC, and Moster ML: Current thoughts on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov;22(6):463-7. PMID 21918444, doi:10.1097/ICU.0b013e32834bbfd8. new
    Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
  23. [kostecki11a] Kostecki J, Zaniewski M, Ziaja K, Urbanek T, Kuczmik W, Krzystanek E, Ziaja D, Korzeniowski T, Majewski E, Hartel M, Swiat M, and Sioma-Markowska U: An endovascular treatment of Chronic Cerebro-Spinal Venous Insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients - 6 month follow-up results. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011 ;32(4):557-62. PMID 21876515. new
    Department of Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, District Specialist Hospital, Tychy, Poland.
  24. [burton11a] Burton JM, Alikhani K, Goyal M, Costello F, White C, Patry D, Bell R, and Hill MD: Complications in MS patients after CCSVI procedures abroad (Calgary, AB). Can J Neurol Sci. 2011 Sep;38(5):741-6. PMID 21856578. Open access article. new
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
  25. [baracchini11a] Baracchini C, Perini P, Causin F, Calabrese M, Rinaldi F, and Gallo P: Progressive multiple sclerosis is not associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Neurology. 2011 Aug;77(9):844-50. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PMID 21849656, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822c6208. new
    First Neurology Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
  26. [tsivgoulis11a] Tsivgoulis G, Mantatzis M, Bogiatzi C, Vadikolias K, Voumvourakis K, Prassopoulos P, Piperidou C, and Heliopoulos I: Extracranial venous hemodynamics in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. Neurology. 2011 Sep;77(13):1241-5. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PMID 21849653, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318230a149. new
    Kapodistriou 3, Nea Chili, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
  27. [zecca11a] Zecca C, and Gobbi C: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A Critical Review. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2011 Sep;10(6):757-61. PMID 21838669. new
    Servizio di Neurologia e Neuroradiologia, Neurocentro della Svizzera Italiana, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, via esserete 46, 6903 Lugano, Switzerland.
  28. [auriel11a] Auriel E, Karni A, Bornstein NM, Nissel T, Gadoth A, and Hallevi H: Extra-cranial venous flow in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2011 Oct;309(1-2):102-4. Epub 2011 Aug 4. PMID 21820131, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2011.07.005. new
    Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
  29. [damadian11a] Damadian RV, and Chu D: The possible role of cranio-cervical trauma and abnormal CSF hydrodynamics in the genesis of multiple sclerosis. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 2011 ;41:1-17. PMID 21970155.
    FONAR Corporation, 110 Marcus Drive, Melville, NY 11747, USA.
  30. [ranadive11a] Ranadive SM, Yan H, Weikert M, Lane AD, Linden MA, Baynard T, Motl RW, and Fernhall B: Vascular Dysfunction and Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Jul:. PMID 21775908, doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822d7997.
    From the Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
  31. [siskin11a] Gary Siskin, Kenneth Mandato and Meridith Englander: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Endovascular Today, July 2011. Article, PDF.
  32. [dake11a] Dake M.: CCSVI: What We Need to Know Now and in the Future. Endovascular Today, July 2011. Article, PDF.
  33. [elenein11a] Elenein RG, Sharer LR, Cook SD, Pachner AR, Michaels J, and Hillen ME: A second case of Marburg's variant of multiple sclerosis with vasculitis and extensive demyelination. Mult Scler. 2011 Aug:. PMID 21816761, doi:10.1177/1352458511414042.
    University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Neurology, USA.
  34. [zaharchuk11a] Zaharchuk G, Fischbein NJ, Rosenberg J, Herfkens RJ, and Dake MD: Comparison of MR and Contrast Venography of the Cervical Venous System in Multiple Sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Jul:. PMID 21757521, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2549.
    Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California; Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.
  35. [waschbisch11a] Waschbisch A, Manzel A, Linker RA, and Lee DH: Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting? Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2011 Jul;3(1):7. Epub 2011 Jul 14. PMID 21756314, doi:10.1186/2040-7378-3-7.
  36. [filippi11a] Filippi M, and Rocca MA: The multiple sclerosis mystery: is there a vascular component? Lancet Neurol. 2011 Jul;10(7):597-8. PMID 21683924, doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70124-7.
    Neuroimaging Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience, Scientific Institute and "Vita-Salute" University, Hospital San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
  37. [zamboni11c] Zamboni P.: Can Facebook influence funding? Nature. 26. Mai 2011, 473(7348):452. doi:10.1038/473452e.
  38. [giampiero11a] Giampiero A: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul;70(1):181. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PMID 21674590, doi:10.1002/ana.22451.
    Department of Vascular Medicine, Sant'Antonio Hospital, Padua, Italy.
  39. [lazzaro11a] Lazzaro MA, Zaidat OO, Mueller-Kronast N, Taqi MA, and Woo D: Endovascular therapy for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Front Neurol. 2011 ;2:44. PMID 21808631, doi:10.3389/fneur.2011.00044. Open access article.
    Department of Neurology, Froedtert Hospital and Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI, USA.
  40. [thapar11a] Thapar A, Lane TR, Pandey V, Shalhoub J, Malik O, Ellis M, Franklin IJ, Nicholas R, and Davies AH: Internal jugular thrombosis post venoplasty for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Phlebology. 2011 Jul:. PMID 21803799, doi:10.1258/phleb.2011.011052.
    * Imperial College London.
  41. [centonze11a] Centonze D, Floris R, Stefanini M, Rossi S, Fabiano S, Castelli M, Marziali S, Spinelli A, Motta C, Garaci FG, Bernardi G, and Simonetti G: Proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency criteria do not predict multiple sclerosis risk or severity. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul;70(1):52-9. PMID 21786298, doi:10.1002/ana.22436.
    Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Santa Lucia Foundation/European Center for Brain Research.
  42. [awad11a] Awad AM, Marder E, Milo R, and Stüve O: Multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a critical review. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2011 Jul;4(4):231-5. PMID 21765873, doi:10.1177/1756285611405565.
    Baton Rouge Neurology Associates, Baton Rouge General Medical Center, 3600 Florida Blvd, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA.
  43. [fragoso11a] Fragoso YD: The internet racing ahead of the scientific evidence: the case of "liberation treatment" for multiple sclerosis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2011 Jun;69(3):525-7. PMID 21755134.
    Department of Neurology, Medical School, UNIMES, Santos, SP, Brazil.
  44. [dhaeseleer11a] D'haeseleer M, Cambron M, Vanopdenbosch L, and De Keyser J: Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Jul;10(7):657-66. PMID 21683931, doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70105-3.
    Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
  45. [simka11a] Simka M: Commentary: Safety of endovascular treatment for CCSVI and future perspectives. J Endovasc Ther. 2011 Jun;18(3):326-7. Type: Comment. PMID 21679069, doi:10.1583/11-3400C2.1.
    Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Euromedic Specialist Clinics, Katowice.
  46. [haider11a] Haider L, Fischer MT, Frischer JM, Bauer J, Höftberger R, Botond G, Esterbauer H, Binder CJ, Witztum JL, and Lassmann H: Oxidative damage in multiple sclerosis lesions. Brain. 2011 Jul;134(Pt 7):1914-24. Epub 2011 Jun 7. PMID 21653539, doi:10.1093/brain/awr128.
    Centre for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria.
  47. [petrov11a] Petrov I, Grozdinski L, Kaninski G, Iliev N, Iloska M, and Radev A: Safety profile of endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Endovasc Ther. 2011 Jun;18(3):314-23. PMID 21679067, doi:10.1583/11-3440.1.
    Cardiology Department, Tokuda Hospital Sofia, Bulgaria.
  48. [wattjes11a] Wattjes MP, Doepp F, Bendszus M, and Fiehler J: ["Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" in multiple sclerosis - is multiple sclerosis a disease of the cerebrospinal venous outflow system?]. Rofo. 2011 Jun;183(6):523-30. Epub 2011 Apr 12. Type: Review. PMID 21487978, doi:10.1055/s-0031-1273292.
    MS Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  49. [zivadinov11c] Robert Zivadinov, Murali Ramanathan, Michael G. Dwyer, Karen Marr, Ralph HB Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman: Comment on no evidence of CCSVI at multiple sclerosis onset. Annals of Neurology doi:10.1002/ana.22420. Abstract.
  50. [zivadinov11b] Zivadinov R, Marr K, Cutter G, Ramanathan M, Benedict RH, Kennedy C, Elfadil M, Yeh AE, Reuther J, Brooks C, Hunt K, Andrews M, Carl E, Dwyer MG, Hojnacki D, and Weinstock-Guttman B: Prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in MS. Neurology. 2011 Apr:. PMID 21490322, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318212a901.
    From the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (R.Z., K.M., C.K., M.E., J.R., C.B., K.H., M.A., E.C., M.G.D.), The Jacobs Neurological Institute, Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo (R.Z., M.R., R.H.B.B., A.E.Y., D.H., B.W.-G.), and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (M.R.), State University of New York, Buffalo; and Department of Biostatistics (G.C.), University of Alabama, Birmingham.
  51. [chafe11a] Chafe R, Born KB, Slutsky AS, and Laupacis A: The rise of people power. Nature. 2011 Apr;472(7344):410-1. PMID 21525907, doi:10.1038/472410a.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador A1B 3V6, Canada.
  52. [khan11a] Khan O, and Tselis A: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis: science or science fiction? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;82(4):355. Type: Comment. PMID 21406538, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.228098.
  53. [filippi11a] Filippi M, Rocca MA, Barkhof F, Bakshi R, Fazekas F, Khan O, Pelletier D, Rovira A, and Simon J: Multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: the neuroimaging perspective. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Mar;32(3):424-7. Epub 2011 Feb 3. PMID 21292801, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2348.
  54. [moisse11a] Moisse K: The YouTube cure. Sci Am. 2011 Feb;304(2):34, 37. PMID 21319538.
  55. [haacke11a] Haacke EM: Chronic cerebral spinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Jan;11(1):5-9. PMID 21158549, doi:10.1586/ern.10.174.
  56. [zivadinov11f] Zivadinov R, Galeotti R, Hojnacki D, Menegatti E, Dwyer MG, Schirda C, Malagoni AM, Marr K, Kennedy C, Bartolomei I, Magnano C, Salvi F, Weinstock-Guttman B, and Zamboni P: Value of MR Venography for Detection of Internal Jugular Vein Anomalies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Longitudinal Study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Apr:. PMID 21474626, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2386. PDF.
    Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York; Jacobs Neurological Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York; and Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara-Bellaria Neurosciences, Ferrara and Bologna, Italy.
  57. [siskin11a] Siskin G, Garla S, Ginsburg L, Mandato K, Englander M, Herr A: Abstract No. 257: The impact of internet-based social networking on the evolution of endovascular treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. March 2011;22(3):S110-S110. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2011.01.283. Article, PDF.
  58. [mandato11a] Mandato K, Hegener P, Siskin G, Englander M, Garla S, Herr A: Abstract No. 3: Safety of outpatient endovascular treatment of the internal jugular and azygos veins for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in multiple sclerosis: A retrospective analysis. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. March 2011;22(3):S4-S4. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2011.01.004. Article, PDF.
  59. [zamboni11b] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Weinstock-Guttman B, Dwyer MG, Schirda CV, Malagoni AM, Hojnacki D, Kennedy C, Carl E, Bergsland N, Magnano C, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, and Zivadinov R: Hypoperfusion of brain parenchyma is associated with the severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional preliminary report. BMC Med. 2011 Mar;9(1):22. Epub 2011 Mar 7. PMID 21385345, doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-22, PDF.
  60. [weinstock-guttman11a] Weinstock-Guttman B, Zivadinov R, Cutter G, Tamaño-Blanco M, Marr K, Badgett D, Carl E, Elfadil M, Kennedy C, Benedict RH, and Ramanathan M: Chronic Cerebrospinal Vascular Insufficiency Is Not Associated with HLA DRB1*1501 Status in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. PLoS One. 2011 ;6(2):e16802. PMID 21340025, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016802.
    Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.
  61. [mayer11a] Mayer CA, Pfeilschifter W, Lorenz MW, Nedelmann M, Bechmann I, Steinmetz H, and Ziemann U: The perfect crime? CCSVI not leaving a trace in MS. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Feb:. PMID 21296899, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.231613. Article.
    Department of Neurology, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
  62. [baracchini11a] Baracchini C, Perini P, Calabrese M, Causin F, Rinaldi F, and Gallo P: No evidence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency at multiple sclerosis onset. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jan;69(1):90-9. PMID 21280079, doi:10.1002/ana.22228.
    From the First Neurology Clinic, University Hospital, Padova, Italy.
  63. [meyer11a] Meyer-Schwickerath R, Haug C, Hacker A, Fink F, Seidel D, Hartung HP, and Haupts MR: Intracranial venous pressure is normal in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2011 Jan:. PMID 21228026, doi:10.1177/1352458510395982.
    Augustahospital Anholt, D-46419 Isselburg-Anholt/Ophtalmologie, Robert-Koch-Ring 36, D-46397 Bocholt, Germany.
  64. [zamboni11a] Zamboni P, and Carinci F: Face, brain, and veins: a new perspective for multiple sclerosis onset. J Craniofac Surg. 2011 Jan;22(1):376. PMID 21239945, doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181f81652.
    1Vascular Disease Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy 2Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  65. [zivadinov10b] Zivadinov R, Lopez-Soriano A, Weinstock-Guttman B, Schirda CV, Magnano CR, Dolic K, Kennedy CL, Brooks CL, Reuther JA, Hunt K, Andrews M, Dwyer MG, and Hojnacki DW: Use of MR Venography for Characterization of the Extracranial Venous System in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Subjects. Radiology. 2010 Dec:. PMID 21177394, doi:10.1148/radiol.10101387.
    Department of Neurology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, State University of New York, 100 High St., Buffalo, NY 14203.
  66. [reekers11a] Reekers JA, Lee MJ, Belli AM, and Barkhof F: Cardiovascular and interventional radiological society of europe commentary on the treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2011 Feb;34(1):1-2. Epub 2010 Dec 7. PMID 21136256, doi:10.1007/s00270-010-0050-5.
    Department of Radiology, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  67. [ludyga10a] Ludyga T, Kazibudzki M, Simka M, Hartel M, Swierad M, Piegza J, Latacz P, Sedlak L, and Tochowicz M: Endovascular treatment for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: is the procedure safe? Phlebology. 2010 Dec;25(6):286-95. PMID 21107001, doi:10.1258/phleb.2010.010053.
    EUROMEDIC Specialist Clinics, Department of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Katowice, Poland.
  68. [zamboni10e] Zamboni P, and Galeotti R: The chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency syndrome. Phlebology. 2010 Dec;25(6):269-79. PMID 21106999, doi:10.1258/phleb.2010.009083.
    Vascular Disease Centre, Interventional Radiology Unit, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara
  69. [ghezzi10a] Ghezzi A, Comi G, and Federico A: Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2010 Dec:. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PMID 21161309, doi:10.1007/s10072-010-0458-3. PDF.
    Centro Studi Sclerosi Multipla, Ospedale di Gallarate, Coordinator of Multiple Sclerosis Study Group, Italian Society of Neurology, Gallarate, Italy.
  70. [weir10a] Weir B: Multiple sclerosis - a vascular etiology? Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Nov;37(6):745-57. Type: Review. PMID 21059535.
    Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  71. [oger10a] Oger J, and Alkhajawah M: CCSVI: hope, hype or snake oil? Can J Neurol Sci. 2010 Nov;37(6):716. Type: Comment. PMID 21059529.
  72. [mehta10a] Manish Mehta: Connecting the dots: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    The Vascular Group, Albany, NY
  73. [lenihan10a] Michael Lenihan: Understanding Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis and Treatment. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    Adirondack Neurology, Glens Falls, NY
  74. [haacke10c] Haacke EM: Investigating venous abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    The Institute for Biomedical Research, Detroit, MI
  75. [dake10a] Dake M: Endovascular treatments for CCSVI. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA
  76. [sharon10a] Sharon Cillis: A Patient’s Story: Dhianna. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    Center for Vascular Awareness, Albany, NY
  77. [hill10a] Deborah Hill, Manish Mehta: The value of randomized controlled trials. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    The Vascular Group, Albany, NY
  78. [zahn10a] Benita Zahn: Life goes on: Facing Multiple Sclerosis. V-AWARE Vol 2 Issue 3 November 2010: CCSVI and Multiple Sclerosis. PDF.
    WNYT, Albany, NY
  79. [zamboni10d] Zamboni P: Regarding "No Cerebrocervical Venous Congestion in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Intraluminal Jugular Septation" Ann Neurol. 2010 Nov:. PMID 21061390, doi:10.1002/ana.22152.
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  80. [wattjes10a] Wattjes MP, van Oosten BW, de Graaf WL, Seewann A, Bot JC, van den Berg R, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH, and Barkhof F: No association of abnormal cranial venous drainage with multiple sclerosis: a magnetic resonance venography and flow-quantification study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Oct:. PMID 20980483, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.223479.
    Department of Radiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  81. [vedantham10a] Vedantham S, Benenati JF, Kundu S, Black CM, Murphy KJ, Cardella JF,: Interventional endovascular management of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis: a position statement by the Society of Interventional Radiology, endorsed by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010 Sep;21(9):1335-7. PMID 20800776, doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2010.07.004. PDF.
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd., Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110-1076, USA.
  82. [rensburg10a] van Rensburg SJ, and van Toorn R: The controversy of CCSVI and iron in multiple sclerosis: Is ferritin the key? Neurology. 2010 Sep. PMID 20881276, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fb44f0.
    From the Division of Chemical Pathology (S.J.v.R.), Tygerberg Hospital, National Health Laboratory Service and Stellenbosch University; and Department of Pediatrics and Child Health (R.v.T.), Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
  83. [worthington10a] Worthington V, Killestein J, Eikelenboom MJ, Teunissen CE, Barkhof F, Polman CH, Uitdehaag BM, and Petzold A: Normal CSF ferritin levels in MS suggest against etiologic role of chronic venous insufficiency. Neurology. 2010 Sep. PMID 20881272, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fb449e.
    From the Department of Neuroimmunology (V.W., A.P.), UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK; and MS Center Amsterdam (J.K., M.J.E., C.E.T., F.B., C.H.P., B.M.J.U., A.P.), Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  84. [chung10b] Chung CP, Lin YJ, Chao AC, Lin SJ, Chen YY, Wang YJ, and Hu HH: Jugular Venous Hemodynamic Changes with Aging. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010 Aug:. PMID 20800950, doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.07.006.
    Department of Neurology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
  85. [sundstroem10a] Sundström P, Wåhlin A, Ambarki K, Birgander R, Eklund A, Malm J: Venous and cerebrospinal fluid flow in multiple sclerosis: A case-control study. Annals of Neurology. 2010;68(2):255-259. doi:10.1002/ana.22132. Article$. PDF.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå, Sweden
  86. [haacke10b] Haacke EM, Tang J, Neelavalli J, and Cheng YC: Susceptibility mapping as a means to visualize veins and quantify oxygen saturation. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Sep;32(3):663-76. PMID 20815065, doi:10.1002/jmri.22276.
    Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.
  87. [doepp10a] Doepp F, Paul F, Valdueza JM, Schmierer K, and Schreiber SJ: No cerebrocervical venous congestion in patients with multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010 Aug;68(2):173-83. PMID 20695010, doi:10.1002/ana.22085. Article, PDF
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  88. [wiehl10b] Wiehl M, Müller: Multiple Sklerose durch venöse Störung? Daran gibt es immer mehr Zweifel. Ärzte Zeitung online. 3 Aug 2010. Artikel
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    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.
  91. [habib10a] Habib CA, Zheng W, Haacke EM, Webb S, Nichol H: Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains. In: Siu KKW, publisher. 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION. Melbourne (Australia): AIP; 2010. p. 78-83. Article$
    Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
  92. [sclafani10a] Sclafani SJ (Commentary by Dake MD and Katzen BT): Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency: A new paradigm and therapy for multiple sclerosis. Encovascular Today. July 2010:41-6. Article. PDF
    Radiology, Surgery and Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York.
  93. [stanbrook10a] Stanbrook MB, and Hébert PC: Access to treatment for multiple sclerosis must be based on science, not hope. CMAJ. 2010 Jun:. PMID 20584927, doi:10.1503/cmaj.100835, PDF.
  94. [wiehl10a] Wiehl M: Venöse Insuffizienz im Gehirn bei MS entdeckt. Ärzte Zeitung für Neurologen/Psychiater, 23. Juni 2010. Article.
  95. [laino10a] Laino C: New Theory on CCSVI and MS Needs Further Study, Experts Say. Neurology Today. 2010 6;10(12):28-29. doi:10.1097/01.NT.0000383489.93815.43. Article
  96. [rynor10a] Rynor B: Canadian trials to examine "liberation procedure" for multiple sclerosis. CMAJ. 2010 May:. PMID 20439450, doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-3251. PDF. [trial_knox10a] [trial_rodger10a]
  97. [beal10a] Beal E: Vascular angioplasty for ms? Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Apr;6(4):184. PMID 20383884. Article$.
  98. [ferlini10a] Ferlini A, Bovolenta M, Neri M, Gualandi F, Balboni A, Yuryev A, Salvi F, Gemmati D, Liboni A, and Zamboni P: Custom CGH array profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) on chromosome 6p21.32 (HLA locus) in patients with venous malformations associated with multiple sclerosis. BMC Med Genet. 2010 Apr;11(1):64. Epub 2010 Apr 28. PMID 20426824, doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-64. Article, PDF.
  99. [qiu10a] Qiu J: Venous abnormalities and multiple sclerosis: another breakthrough claim? Lancet Neurol. 2010 May;9(5):464-5. PMID 20398855, doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70098-3.
  100. [krogias10a] Krogias C, Schröder A, Wiendl H, Hohlfeld R, and Gold R: "Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" and multiple sclerosis : Critical analysis and first observation in an unselected cohort of MS patients. Nervenarzt. 2010 Apr PMID 20386873, doi:10.1007/s00115-010-2972-1. Article$.
    Neurologische Klinik, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791, Bochum, Deutschland.
  101. [zamboni10c] Zamboni P: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):91-2. PMID 20351663. PDF, Article$.
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
  102. [embry10a] Embry AF: Integrating CCSVI and CNS autoimmunity in a disease model for MS. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):93-4. PMID 20351664. PDF, Article$
    Direct-MS, Calgary, AL, Canada
  103. [lee10a] Lee AB, Laredo J, and Neville R: Embryological background of truncular venous malformation in the extracranial venous pathways as the cause of chronic cerebro spinal venous insufficiency. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):95-108. PMID 20351665. PDF, Article$.
    Department of Vascular Surgery, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, USA.
  104. [simka10b] Simka M, Kostecki J, Zaniewski M, Majewski E, and Hartel M: Extracranial Doppler sonographic criteria of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in the patients with multiple sclerosis. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):109-14. PMID 20351666. PDF, Article$
    Department of Angiology, Private Healthcare Institution SANA, Pszczyna, Poland
  105. [al-omari10a] Al-Omari MH, and Rousan LA: Internal jugular vein morphology and hemodynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):115-20. PMID 20351667. PDF, Article$.
    Radiology Department, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan.
  106. [menegatti10a] Menegatti E, Genova V, Tessari M, Malagoni AM, Bartolomei I, Zuolo M, Galeotti R, Salvi F, and Zamboni P: The reproducibility of colour Doppler in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):121-6. PMID 20351668. PDF, Article$.
    Vascular Diseases Centre, University of Ferrara, Italy
  107. [hojnacki10a] Hojnacki D, Zamboni P, Lopez-Soriano A, Galleotti R, Menegatti E, Weinstock-Guttman B, Schirda C, Magnano C, Malagoni AM, Kennedy C, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, and Zivadinov R: Use of neck magnetic resonance venography, Doppler sonography and selective venography for diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency: a pilot study in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):127-39. PMID 20351669. PDF, Article$.
    The Jacobs Neurological Institute, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA
  108. [zamboni10b] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Weinstock-Guttman B, Schirda C, Cox JL, Malagoni AM, Hojnacki D, Kennedy C, Carl E, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Galeotti R, Hussein S, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, Ramanathan M, and Zivadinov R: CSF dynamics and brain volume in multiple sclerosis are associated with extracranial venous flow anomalies: a pilot study. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):140-8. PMID 20351670. PDF, Article$.
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara-Bellaria Neurosciences, Ferrara and Bologna, Italy
  109. [haacke10a] Haacke EM, Garbern J, Miao Y, Habib C, and Liu M: Iron stores and cerebral veins in MS studied by susceptibility weighted imaging. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):149-57. PMID 20351671. PDF, Article$.
    Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China
  110. [zivadinov10a] Zivadinov R, Schirda C, Dwyer MG, Haacke ME, Weinstock-Guttman B, Menegatti E, Heininen-Brown M, Magnano C, Malagoni AM, Wack DS, Hojnacki D, Kennedy C, Carl E, Bergsland N, Hussein S, Poloni G, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, and Zamboni P: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis: a pilot case-control study. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):158-75. PMID 20351672. PDF, Article$.
    Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
  111. [malagoni10a] Malagoni AM, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, Manfredini F, Basaglia N, Salvi F, and Zamboni P: Is chronic fatigue the symptom of venous insufficiency associated with multiple sclerosis? A longitudinal pilot study. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):176-82. PMID 20351673. PDF, Article$.
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
  112. [bartolomei10a] Bartolomei I, Salvi F, Galeotti R, Salviato E, Alcanterini M, Menegatti E, Mascalchi M, and Zamboni P: Hemodynamic patterns of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis. Correlation with symptoms at onset and clinical course. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):183-8. PMID 20351674. PDF, Article$.
    Center for Rare and Neuroimmunitary Diseases, Department of Neurological Science, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy
  113. [plasmati10a] Plasmati R, Pastorelli F, Fini N, Salvi F, Galeotti R, and Zamboni P: Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency: report of transcranial magnetic stimulation follow-up study in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Int Angiol. 2010 Apr;29(2):189-92. PMID 20351675. PDF, Article$.
    Department of Neurology, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy2 Vascular Diseases Centre, University of Ferrara, Italy
  114. [khan10a] Khan O, Filippi M, Freedman MS, Barkhof F, Dore-Duffy P, Lassmann H, Trapp B, Bar-Or A, Zak I, Siegel MJ, and Lisak R: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2010 Mar;67(3):286-90. PMID 20373339, doi:10.1002/ana.22001, Abstract, PDF$.
    Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4201 St Antoine, Detroit, MI 48323, USA.
    Embry A: An Open Letter to the Authors of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency and Multiple Sclerosis (Khan et al, 2010, Annals of Neurology). PDF
  115. [ana10a] Experimental multiple sclerosis vascular shunting procedure halted at Stanford. Ann Neurol. 2010 Feb;67(1):A13-A15. PMID 20186848, doi:10.1002/ana.21969. PDF
  116. [simka10a] Simka M, and Zaniewski M: Reinterpreting the magnetic resonance signs of hemodynamic impairment in the brains of multiple sclerosis patients from the perspective of a recent discovery of outflow block in the extracranial veins. J Neurosci Res. 2010 Feb. PMID 20127806, doi:10.1002/jnr.22350.
    Private Healthcare Institution SANA, Department of Angiology, Pszczyna, Poland.
  117. [qiu10] Qiu W, Raven S, Wu JS, Carroll WM, Mastaglia FL, and Kermode AG: Wedge-shaped medullary lesions in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2010 Jan. PMID 20056253, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2009.12.017.
    Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological disorders, University of Western Australia, Australia; Department of Neurology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
  118. [lee09a] Lee BB, Bergan J, Gloviczki P, Laredo J, Loose DA, Mattassi R, Parsi K, Villavicencio JL, and Zamboni P: Diagnosis and treatment of venous malformations Consensus Document of the International Union of Phlebology (IUP)-2009. Int Angiol. 2009 Dec;28(6):434-51. Montecarlo September 4th 2009 [uip09]. PMID 20087280. PDF updated
    Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Center for Vein, Lymphatics, and Vascular Malformation, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
    Info
    A Consensus Conference on Venous Malformations – headed by Prof. Byung B Lee from Georgetown – and experts from 47 countries – studied the evidence and unanimously voted in favour of officially including the stenosing lesions found in CCSVI in the new Consensus document and Guidelines.
    Source: Fondazione Hilarescere
    Comment
    CCSVI is classified among venous malformations.
  119. [zamboni09h] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Weinstock-Guttman B, Schirda C, Cox JL, Malagoni AM, Hojanacki D, Kennedy C, Carl E, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Galeotti R, Hussein S, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, and Zivadinov R: The severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Funct Neurol. 2009 Jul-Sep ;24(3):133-8. PMID 20018140. PDF.
  120. [zamboni09g] Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, Malagoni AM, Gianesini S, Bartolomei I, Mascoli F, and Salvi F: A prospective open-label study of endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2009 Dec;50(6):1348-58.e1-3. PMID 19958985, doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2009.07.096. Presented at the Thirty-first Charing Cross Symposium, London, United Kingdom, Apr 3–7, 2009 [cx09]. Abstract, PDF, preliminary results: [zamboni09c]
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
    Comment
    This study describes a vascular treatment of CCSVI by MS patients..
  121. [zamboni09f] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Weinstock-Guttman B, Schirda C, Cox JL, Malagoni AM, Hojanacki D, Kennedy C, Carl E, Dwyer MG, Bergsland N, Galeotti R, Hussein S, Bartolomei I, Salvi F, and Zivadinov R: The severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Funct Neurol. 2009 Jul-Sep ;24(3):133-8. PMID 20018140. PDF$
  122. [zivadinov09] Pirko I, and Zivadinov R: Transcranial sonography of deep gray nuclei: a new outcome measure in multiple sclerosis? Neurology. 2009 Sep;73(13):1006-7. Epub 2009 Aug 26. Type: Comment. PMID 19710403, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181bb1de9. Article$
  123. [tallantyre09] Tallantyre EC, Morgan PS, Dixon JE, Al-Radaideh A, Brookes MJ, Evangelou N, and Morris PG: A comparison of 3T and 7T in the detection of small parenchymal veins within MS lesions. Invest Radiol. 2009 Sep;44(9):491-4. PMID 19652606, doi:10.1097/RLI.0b013e3181b4c144.
    Department of Clinical Neurology, Medical School, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
  124. [khalil09] Khalil M, Enzinger C, Langkammer C, Tscherner M, Wallner-Blazek M, Jehna M, Ropele S, Fuchs S, and Fazekas F: Quantitative assessment of brain iron by R(2)* relaxometry in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2009 Sep;15(9):1048-54. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PMID 19556316, doi:10.1177/1352458509106609. PDF
    Department of Neurology and Department of Radiology (Division of Neuroradiology), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
  125. [walter09] Walter U, Wagner S, Horowski S, Benecke R, and Zettl UK: Transcranial brain sonography findings predict disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2009 Sep;73(13):1010-7. Epub 2009 Aug 5. Type: Controlled Clinical Trial. PMID 19657105, doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b8a9f8. Abstract, Article$
    Department of Neurology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
  126. [zamboni09e] Singh AV, and Zamboni P: Anomalous venous blood flow and iron deposition in multiple sclerosis. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Dec;29(12):1867-78. Epub 2009 Sep 02. PMID 19724286, doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.180. PDF
    Department of Physics, European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM), IFOM-IEO Campus, Centro Interdisciplinare Materiali e Interfacce Nanostrutturati, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
  127. [zamboni09d] Zamboni P, Consorti G, Galeotti R, Gianesini S, Menegatti E, Tacconi G, and Carinci F: Venous collateral circulation of the extracranial cerebrospinal outflow routes. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2009 Aug;6(3):204-12. Epub 2009 Aug 1. Type: Review. PMID 19534716. Full article (PDF)
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  128. [zamboni09c] Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, Malagoni AM, Mascoli F, Dall'Ara S, Bartolomei I, and Salvi F: Rationale and preliminary results of endovascular treatment of multiple sclerosis, the liberation procedure. 2009, in 1978–2009 -31 years- Vascular and Endovascular Controversies Update 31st International Symposium – CX Charing Cross, pp. 71–79. [cx09] Full article (PDF), final results: [zamboni09g]
  129. [simka09] Simka M: Blood brain barrier compromise with endothelial inflammation may lead to autoimmune loss of myelin during multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2009 May;6(2):132-9. Type: Review. PMID 19442163. Abstract, PDF
    Department of Angiology, Private Healthcare Institution SANA, Pszczyna, Poland.
  130. [haacke09d] Ge Y, Zohrabian VM, Osa EO, Xu J, Jaggi H, Herbert J, Haacke EM, and Grossman RI: Diminished visibility of cerebral venous vasculature in multiple sclerosis by susceptibility-weighted imaging at 3.0 Tesla. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 May;29(5):1190-4. PMID 19388109, doi:10.1002/jmri.21758. PDF
    Department of Radiology/Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.
  131. [franceschi09] Franceschi C: The unsolved puzzle of multiple sclerosis and venous function. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;80(4):358. Type: Comment. PMID 19289474, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.168179. Extract, Article$
  132. [zamboni09b] Zamboni P, Galeotti R, Menegatti E, Malagoni AM, Tacconi G, Dall'Ara S, Bartolomei I, and Salvi F: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Apr;80(4):392-9. Epub 2008 Dec 5. PMID 19060024, doi:10.1136/jnnp.2008.157164. Full article, PDF
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
    Comment
    This is currently the main publication about CCSVI.
  133. [haacke09c] Haacke EM, Makki M, Ge Y, Maheshwari M, Sehgal V, Hu J, Selvan M, Wu Z, Latif Z, Xuan Y, Khan O, Garbern J, and Grossman RI: Characterizing iron deposition in multiple sclerosis lesions using susceptibility weighted imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Mar;29(3):537-44. PMID 19243035, doi:10.1002/jmri.21676. Full article, PDF, [spin09]
    Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.
    Comment
    Iron deposits could have a relation with MS. This study describes the MRI SWI method for measureing iron deposits in the brain.
  134. [zamboni09a] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Galeotti R, Malagoni AM, Tacconi G, Dall'Ara S, Bartolomei I, and Salvi F: The value of cerebral Doppler venous haemodynamics in the assessment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Jul;282(1-2):21-7. Epub 2009 Jan 13. PMID 19144359, doi:10.1016/j.jns.2008.11.027. Abstract, PDF
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  135. [haacke09b] Mittal S, Wu Z, Neelavalli J, and Haacke EM: Susceptibility-weighted imaging: technical aspects and clinical applications, part 2. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009 Feb;30(2):232-52. Epub 2009 Jan 8. Type: Review. PMID 19131406, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1461. Full article, PDF, [spin09]
    Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
  136. [haacke09a] Haacke EM, Mittal S, Wu Z, Neelavalli J, and Cheng YC: Susceptibility-weighted imaging: technical aspects and clinical applications, part 1. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009 Jan;30(1):19-30. Epub 2008 Nov 27. Type: Review. PMID 19039041, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1400. Full article, PDF, [spin09]
    Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
  137. [simka08] Simka M, and Rybak Z: Hypothetical molecular mechanisms by which local iron overload facilitates the development of venous leg ulcers and multiple sclerosis lesions. Med Hypotheses. 2008 Aug;71(2):293-7. Epub 2008 Apr 8. PMID 18400414, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.02.009. PDF
    Department of Angiology, Wodzislawska 78, 43-200 Pszczyna, Poland.
  138. [talbert08] Talbert DG: Raised venous pressure as a factor in multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2008 ;70(6):1112-7. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PMID 18079069, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2007.10.009. PDF
    Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, United Kingdom.
  139. [ge08] Ge Y, Zohrabian VM, and Grossman RI: Seven-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: new vision of microvascular abnormalities in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2008 Jun;65(6):812-6. Type: Case Reports. PMID 18541803, doi:10.1001/archneur.65.6.812. Full article, PDF
    Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, 650 First Ave, Room 615, New York, NY 10016, USA.
  140. [zuolo08a] Zuolo M: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: An Experimental Study. Disseration 2007-2008, Supervisor: Zamboni P, University of Ferrara. PDF
    University of Ferrara - School of Medicine Department of Surgical, Anesthesiological and Radiological Sciences General Surgery
  141. [zamboni08a] Menegatti E, and Zamboni P: Doppler haemodynamics of cerebral venous return. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2008 Nov;5(4):260-5. Type: Review. PMID 18991660. PDF
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  142. [keyser08a] De Keyser J, Steen C, Mostert JP, and Koch MW: Hypoperfusion of the cerebral white matter in multiple sclerosis: possible mechanisms and pathophysiological significance. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Oct;28(10):1645-51. Epub 2008 Jul 02. Type: Review. PMID 18594554, doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2008.72. Article
    Department of Neurology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
  143. [zamboni07] Zamboni P, Menegatti E, Bartolomei I, Galeotti R, Malagoni AM, Tacconi G, and Salvi F: Intracranial venous haemodynamics in multiple sclerosis. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2007 Nov;4(4):252-8. PMID 18045150. PDF
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
  144. [zamboni06] Zamboni P: The big idea: iron-dependent inflammation in venous disease and proposed parallels in multiple sclerosis. J R Soc Med. 2006 Nov;99(11):589-93. Type: Review. PMID 17082306, doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.11.589. Full article, PDF
    Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.
    Comment
    This is the first publication of Prof. Zamboni for MS. He hypothesizes the relation of MS and iron and the parallels in venous diseases, e.g. in the legs.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Fondazione Hilarescere for funding the research and providing the publications for free.